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Education and Income 2007
By: Bjorklund, Anders, Jantti, Markus, and Gary Solon.

These researchers study data on Swedish families and find that the largest positive influence on both sonsí and daughtersí educational outcomes from parentsí education occurs when children are raised by both biological parents. Both sonsí and daughtersí mean years of education, mean income, and mean earnings are highest as well when children are raised by both biological parents.

Nature and nurture in the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status: Evidence from Swedish children and their biological and rearing parents. National Bureau of Economic Research. Working paper no. 12985.


Attendance Rates 2006
By: Bodenhorn, Howard.

Using data from urban areas in the southern US, this researcher found that children residing with both parents were more likely to attend school than children from other family structures. Attendance rates for children living with both parents ranged from 6 to 31 percent higher than other family structures, depending upon background factors.

Single parenthood and childhood outcomes in the mid-nineteenth century urban South. National Bureau of Economic Research. Working paper no. 12056.


English and Math GPA 2006
By: Fagan, Patrick, Johnson, Kirk A, and Jonathan Butcher.

These researchers studied data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and found that, on average, teens from intact married families had the highest GPA in English and mathematics. The average GPA for children from intact married families was 2.9; for children with stepparents, cohabiting biological parents, or a divorced single parent it was 2.6; and for children with a cohabiting mother and boyfriend or never-married single parent it was 2.5.

A portrait of family and religion in America: Key outcomes for the common good: Heritage Foundation: Washington, D.C.


Grade Point Average and Sexual Activity 2006
By: Silver, Ellen Johnson, and Laurie J. Bauman.

Using survey data on adolescents from inner cities, these researchers find that among those who have not yet had sexual intercourse 31.8% came from families of both biological parents and 56.4% reported grade point averages of B or better. Among those who had previously had sexual intercourse only 20.8% came from families with both biological parents and only 40.3% of them reported grade point averages of B or better.

The association of sexual experience with attitudes, beliefs, and risk behaviors of inner-city adolescents.Journal of Research on Adolescence 16 (1): 29-45.


Math and Reading Scores 2006
By: Marks, Gary N.

Using data from the Program for International Student Assessment of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, this researcher finds that students living in intact families had higher math and reading scores than their peers from single-parent families and step parent families. Intact-family students had the highest math scores in 21 of 30 countries relative to students in both single-parent and step-parent families.  In reading, intact-family students scored higher than single-parent students in 18 countries and higher than step-parent students in 26 countries. In the US, students from intact families scored on average 50 and 45.5 points higher on reading scores and 53 and 43 points higher on math scores than their peers from single-parent and step-parent families, respectively.

Family size, family type, and student achievement: Cross national differences and the role of socioeconomic and school factors. Journal of Comparative Family Studies 37 (Winter): 1-24.


Educational Attainment and Divorce 2005
By: Amato, Paul R., and Jacob Cheadle.

Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Marital Instability Over the Life Course, these researchers find evidence of the intergenerational affects of divorce. They find that a grandparentís divorce is associated with lower educational attainment as well as increased marital discord for their grandchildren. They also find that parental divorce increases the probability of children divorcing by 123 percent.

The long reach of divorce: Divorce and child well-being across three generations. Journal of Marriage and Family 67 (1): 191-206.


Attendance and GPA 2004
By: Ham, Barry D.

This researcher, studying high school students from Colorado Springs, found that children from intact families reported the highest mean GPA and best attendance record as a group relative to students from other family structures. Being in an intact family predicted a 9.3-28.9 percent increase in GPA as well as a 40-180 percent decrease in single-period absences, depending on the comparison group.

The effects of divorce and remarriage on the academic achievement of high school seniors. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 42 (1/2): 159-78.


Educational Attainment and Commitment 2004
By: Macmillan, Ross, and John Hagan.

Using data from the National Youth Survey, these researchers find that students from two-parent families have significantly higher educational attainment and significantly stronger commitment towards education than children from other family structures. Children from two-parent families are also less likely to experience violent adolescent victimization, which negatively affects childrenís educational outcomes.

Violence in the transition to adulthood: Adolescent victimization, education, and socioeconomic attainment in later life. Journal of Research on Adolescence 14 (2): 127-59.


Cognitive Development and Education 2003
By: American academy of pediatics task force on the family.

The researchers in this report find that when children have a married father and mother that are involved in their lives, the children are less likely to experience problems with school attendance, achievement, and completion. They also find evidence that children experience cognitive gains if their mothers are home for the first 2 to 3 years after birth.

Family pediatrics. Pediatrics 111 (6): 1541-53.


Math Achievement and IQ 2003
By: Armor, David J.

This researcher studies data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth and finds that children living with both biological parents had the higher math achievement scores (103) relative to children whoís fathers were absent from the home (99) and those whose parents never married (92). Children who lived with both biological parents also had the highest recorded average IQ (103) relative to children from other structures. These associations remained after controlling for motherís IQ, parentsí education level, and family income.

Maximizing intelligence. Transaction Publishers: New Brunswick, NJ.


Math and Reading Achievement 1997
By: Pong, Suet-Ling.

Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Survey, this researcher finds a positive effect on math and reading achievement scores from having a majority of students in the school living in two-biological-parent families, even after controlling for mean socioeconomic status, parental involvement in schooling, and demographic characteristics.

 Family structure, school context, and eighth-grade math and reading achievement. Journal of Marriage and the Family 59 (3): 734-46.