Behavioral Problems 2006
By: Carlson, Marcia J.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this researcher finds that having an involved father in an adolescentís life leads to a decrease in behavioral problems for the adolescent. This involved father effect is magnified when the father is living with the adolescent.

Family structure, father involvement, and adolescent behavioral outcomes. Journal of Marriage and Family68 (1): 137-54.

Fighting and Running Away 2006
By: Fagan, Patrick, Johnson, Kirk A., and Jonathan Butcher.

These researchers study data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and find that adolescents from intact married families were the least likely to ever have gotten into a fight or to have run away with probabilities of 28.8% and 6.3%, respectively. They were 26% to 48% less likely to run away and 10% to 32% less likely to get into a fight, depending on the family structure of comparison.

A portrait of family and religion in America: Key outcomes for the common good. Heritage Foundation:Washington, D.C.

Volunteering 2006
By: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Government economists study data from the Current Population Survey and find that married persons volunteered at a higher rate (32.3%) than those who had never married (20.3%) and those with other marital statuses (21.3%). Furthermore, parents with children under 18 were substantially more likely to volunteer with a probability of 34.4% than were parents without children under 18, who had a probability of 23.6%.

Volunteering in the United States, 2006. United States Department of Labor: Washington, D.C.

Antisocial Behavior 2005
By: Marmorstein, Naomi R., and William G. Iacono.

Studying data from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, these researchers find that between 6 and 8 percent of adolescents who exhibited no antisocial behaviors or antisocial behaviors that stopped by mid-adolescence experienced a parental divorce whereas between 23 and 31 percent of adolescents who exhibited persisting or late-onset antisocial behaviors experienced a parental divorce.

Longitudinal follow-up of adolescents with late-onset antisocial behavior: A pathological yet overlooked group. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 44 (12): 1284-91.

Family Assistance 2005
By: Eggebeen, David J.

Studying data from the National Survey of Families and Households, this researcher finds that the likelihood of married adults exchanging assistance with their parents is significantly higher than for cohabiting adults. The proportion of married adults that: 1) gave assistance to their parents was 8% higher; 2) received assistance from their parents was 11% higher; and 3) expected assistance in a time of emergency from their parents was 15% higher than for cohabiting adults. After controlling for characteristics of children, parents, and the parent-child relationship, being married increased the likelihood (relative to cohabiting) of receiving parental assistance by 12%, of giving parental assistance by 7%, and of expecting parental assistance in the case of an emergency by 49%.

Cohabitation and exchanges of support. Social Forces 83 (3): 1097-110.

Fathering 2005
By: Schwartz, Seth J., and Gordon E. Finley.

Analyzing survey data from US university students, these researchers find that students from intact families report significantly higher levels of father involvement, father mentoring, and nurturant fathering practices than do students from divorced families across all racial groups.

Fathering in intact and divorced families: Ethnic differences in retrospective reports. Journal of Marriage and Family 67 (1): 207-15.

Behavioral and Emotional Problems 2004
By: Brown, Susan L.

Using data from the National Survey of Americaís Families, this researcher finds that after controlling for economic and parental resource variables teenagers in married-biological-parent families have fewer behavioral and emotional problems and tend to be more engaged in school than do teenagers from other family structures.

Family structure and child well-being: The significance of parental cohabitation. Journal of Marriage and Family 66 (2): 351-67.

Aggression and Handling Tolerance 2003
By: Youngblade, Lise M.

This researcher analyzes data on both employed and unemployed married mothers and their elementary school age children and finds after controlling for background characteristics that children whose mothers were employed during the first year of life were more likely to hit other children and exhibited less tolerance for frustration than children whose mothers did not work.

Peer and teacher ratings of third- and fourth-grade childrenís social behavior as a function of early maternal employment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 44 (4): 477-88.

Productivity and Children as Social Outcomes 2003
By: American academy of pediatrics task force on the family.

The researchers in this report find that improved marriages lead to increased worker productivity, decreased public health and social service costs, and increased standards of living. They also find that when fathers play a visible and nurturing role in their childrenís lives, the children have better emotional and social outcomes such as ability to handle long-term relationships, increased productivity at work, and decreased levels of delinquency.

Family pediatrics. Pediatrics 111 (6): 1541-53.

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