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Sexual Initiation 2006
By: Pearson, Jennifer, Muller, Chandra, and Frisco, Michelle L.

These researchers studied data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and found that after controlling for parental involvement adolescents living in other family structures had between 1.4 and 3 times higher odds of initiating a sexual encounter than adolescents living with both biological parents.

Parental involvement, family structure, and adolescent sexual decision making. Sociological Perspectives49 (1): 67-90.


From Dating to Sex 2005
By: Kaestle, Christine E., and Carolyn Tucker Halpern.

These researchers study data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and find that the odds of opposite-sex adolescent couples having sexual intercourse decreases by 44% to 75% if the reporting male adolescent lives with two biological parents and by 7% to 56% if the reporting female adolescent lives with two biological parents.

Sexual activity among adolescents in romantic relationships with friends, acquaintances, or strangers.Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 159 (9): 849-53.


Sex During Adolescence 2005
By: Cubbin, Catherine, Santelli, John, Brindis, Claire D., and Paula Braveman.

Analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, these researchers find that female adolescents from two-biological-parent families have between 37% and 65% lower odds of ever having sex than their peers from other family structures; male adolescents from two-biological-parent families have between 37% and 55% lower odds of ever having sex than male adolescents from other family structures. When the proportion of married households in the community is greater than 33% there is a decrease in the odds of ever having had sex by 32% for male adolescents and 23% for female adolescents.

Neighborhood context and sexual behaviors among adolescents: Findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 37 (3): 125-34.


Sexual Activity 2005
By: South, Scott J., Haynie, Dana L., and Sunita Bose.

Analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health where respondents reported being virgins in an initial interview, these researchers find that living in a two-parent family decreased the likelihood of engaging in sexual activity before a subsequent interview.

Residential mobility and the onset of adolescent sexual activity. Journal of Marriage and Family 67 (2): 499-514.


Sexual Initiation 2005
By: Roche, Kathleen M., Mekos, Debra, Alexander, Cheryl S., Astone, Nan Marie, Bandeen-Roche, Karen, and Margaret E. Ensming

Studying data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, these researchers find that only 9% of adolescent virgins from two-biological-parent families initiated sexual intercourse 11 months after an initial interview relative to 16% and 21% of adolescent virgins from stepparent families and single-parent families, respectively. Furthermore, they find that living with two biological parents decreases the odds of initiating sexual intercourse by 45% relative to living with a single parent.

Parenting influences on early sex initiation among adolescents: How neighborhood matters. Journal of Family Issues 26 (1): 32-54.


Teen Pregnancy 2004
By: Crowder, Kyle, and Jay Teachman.

This study analyzes data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and finds that the odds of an adolescent experiencing a premarital teen pregnancy are 28% lower if they have never lived with a solo, single parent.

Do residential conditions explain the relationship between living arrangements and adolescent behavior?Journal of Marriage and Family 66 (3): 721-38.


Teenage Pregnancy 2004
By: National center for health statistics.

Studying data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey, these researchers find that the probability of a teenage girl giving birth if she resides with two biological or adoptive parents is 46% lower than for girls living in other family structures.

Teenagers in the United States: Sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing, 2002. US Department of Health and Human Services 23 (24): 1-48.


Attitudes Toward Pregnancy 2003
By: Jaccard, James, Dodge, Tonya, and Patricia Dittus.

These researchers study data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and find that females living with two parents tend to have more negative attitudes about the impact an early pregnancy would have on their lives. Negative attitudes toward early pregnancy are a significant predictor of an adolescent female experiencing an early pregnancy.

Do adolescents want to avoid pregnancy? Attitudes toward pregnancy as predictors of pregnancy. Journal of Adolescent Health 33 (2): 79-83.


Early Sexual Intercourse and Early Pregnancy 2003
By: Quinlan, Robert J.

Analyzing data from the National Survey of Family Growth, these researchers find that women whose parents separated between their birth and age 5 experienced 4 times the risk of having early sexual intercourse and 2.5 times the risk of an early pregnancy; women whose parents separated between ages 6-11 had 2.7 times the risk of early sexual intercourse and 1.8 times the risk of an early pregnancy; and women whose parents separated between ages 12-17 had 2 times the risk of early sexual intercourse and 1.5 times the risk of early pregnancy.

Father absence, parental care, and female reproductive development. Evolution and Human Behavior 24 (6): 376-90.


Premarital Pregnancy 2003
By: Albrecht, Chris, and Jay D. Teachman.

Analyzing data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth, these researchers find that an increase in the number of transitions in childhood living arrangements increases the risk of a first premarital pregnancy before the age of 25 by between 23% to 41% for white teenagers and 14% to 21% for black teenagers. Being born out of wedlock increases the risk by between 55% to 134% percent for white teenagers and 69% to 73% percent for black teenagers.

Childhood living arrangements and the risk of premarital intercourse. Journal of Family Issues 24 (7): 867-94.