Gang Membership

By: Li, Xiaoming, Stanton, Bonita, Pack, Robert, Harris, Carole, Cottrell, Lesley, and James Burns

Using data on 349 urban African-American youths, these researchers find that only 21% of current gang members and 19% of former gang members lived with both of their parents. Furthermore, 87 percent of youths that reported living with both biological parents were not gang members.

Risk and protective factors associated with gang involvement among urban African-American adolescents.Youth and Society 34 (2): 172-94.