Health Care Budgeting 2005
By: DeLeire, Thomas, and Ariel Kalil.

Using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey, these researchers find that parents from married families allocate $80-$110 more from their budget per quarter to child-related health care than do parents from other family structures.

How do cohabiting couples with children spend their money? Journal of Marriage and Family 67 (May): 286-95.

Smoking and Mortality Risk 2005
By: Martin, Leslie R., Friedman, Howard S. Clark, Kathleen M., and Joan S. Tucker.

Using data from the Terman Life-Cycle Study, these researchers find that parental divorce during childhood is positively associated with risk for future unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, leading to increased mortality risk in adulthood.

Longevity following the experience of parental divorce. Social Science and Medicine 61 (10): 2177-90

Psychological Well-Being 2004
By: Love, Keisha M., and Tamera B. Murdock.

Using data from college students from the Midwestern US, these researchers find that being from an intact biological family has a positive effect on psychological well-being after controlling for attachment to parents. Also, individuals from intact biological families tend to have more secure attachments to their parents, which is also associated with better psychological well-being.

Attachment to parents and psychological well-being: An examination of young adult college students in intact families and stepfamilies. Journal of Family Psychology 18 (4): 600-8.

Separation Anxiety Disorder 2004
By: Cronk, Nikole J., Slutske, Wedny S., Madden, Pamela A.F., Bucholz, Kathleen K., and Andrew C. Heath.

This study analyzes data from female twins and finds that daughters in father-absent families have 1.68 times higher odds of experiencing full separation anxiety disorder and 1.6 times higher odds of experiencing symptoms of separation anxiety disorder.

Risk for separation anxiety disorder among girls: Paternal absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and genetic vulnerability. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 113 (2): 237-47.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2004
By: Newbern, Elizabeth Claire, Miller, William C., Schoenbach, Victor J., and Jay S. Kaufman.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, these researchers find that adolescents from two-parent families have between 23 and 65 percent lower chances of getting a sexually transmitted disease than youths from other family structures, depending upon race and gender.

Family socioeconomic status and self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among black and white American adolescents. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 31 (9): 533-41.

Depression 2003
By: Lamb, Kathleen A., Lee, Gary R., and Alfred DeMaris.

These researchers study data from the National Survey of Families and Households and find after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors that the only relationship structure that leads to a decrease in the reported depression levels of the partners relative to those who are single is marrying without cohabiting.

Union formation and depression: Selection and relationship effects. Journal of Marriage and Family 65 (4): 953-62.

Health of Parents and Children 2003
By: American academy of pediatrics task force on the family.

This report finds that both married men and women are physically and emotionally healthier, are less likely to be involved in alcohol and drug abuse, and tend to live longer and have healthier lifestyles than unmarried men and women. Also, life-long health disadvantages and emotional problems are less likely to occur among children who have both married parents involved in their lives.

Family pediatrics. Pediatrics 111 (6): 1541-53.

Mental/Emotional Health 2002
By: Keyes, Corey L.M.

This researcher studies data from the Midlife in the United States study and finds that across marital status groups married adults reported the highest proportion of individuals with flourishing mental/emotional health (19.6%). Married adults as a group also had the lowest proportion of individuals experiencing depression (8.1%) and tied for the lowest proportion of individuals with languishing mental/emotional health (tied with widows at 3.6%). Individuals with languishing mental/emotional health ran significantly higher risks for episodes of severe depression, lost work days due to health concerns, and limited functioning in daily activities.

Mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 43 (2): 207-22.

Antisocial Personality Disorder 2001
By: Horwitz, Allan V., Widom, Cathy Spatz, McLaughlin, Julie, and Helene Raskin White.

Studying data collected from interviews of adults who were abused or neglected as children, these researchers find that one of the strongest predictors of adulthood struggles with antisocial personality disorder, dysthymia (similar to depression), and alcoholism is lifetime stress events such as divorce or separation of parents.

Impact of childhood abuse and neglect on adult mental health: A prospective study. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 42 (2): 184-201.

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