Time Spent with Children 2006
By: Craig, Lyn.

Using data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Time Use Survey, this researcher finds that men and women tend to allocate time differently with their children. Men on average spend almost 8 hours of their day with children while women spend on average 12 hours. Men spend 40% of their time in talking, reading, teaching, or reprimanding activities relative to 22% of womenís time in such activities; women spend 51% of their time relative to 31% of menís time in physical and emotional care activities.

Does father care mean fathers share? A comparison of how mothers and fathers in intact families spend time with children. Gender and Society 20 (April): 259-81.

Work/Family Commitments 2006
By: Hewitt, Belinda, Baxter, Janeen, and Mark Western.

These researchers study data from the Negotiating the Lifecourse longitudinal study and find that there are significant differences between how work and family commitments operate for men and women. Specifically, there are negative health affects for mothers working full-time relative to mothers working part-time or not at all whereas there are no such negative affects for fathers.

Family, work, health: The impact of marriage, parenthood, and employment on self-reported health of Australian men and women. Journal of Sociology 21 (1): 61-78.

Stress from Work-Home Relationships 2004
By: Kulik, Liat.

Using survey data from dual-earner families in Israel, this study finds that women on average reported significantly higher levels of perceived stress from the work-home relationship and more frequently reported feelings of exhaustion or being trapped by the work-home relationship than did men.

Strategies for managing home-work conflict and psychological well-being among Jews and Arabs in Israel: The impact of sex and sociocultural context. Families in Society 85 (1): 139-48.

Nurturing of Children 2003
By: American academy of pediatics task force on the family.

The researchers in this report find that when parents in two-parent married households develop complementary and supportive roles and responsibilities in the home, children tend to receive better nurturing and the family has increased economic resources available.

Family pediatrics. Pediatrics 111 (6): 1541-53.

Socialization and Sex Typing 2001
By: Lueptow, Lloyd B., Garovich-Szabo, Lori, and Margaret B. Lueptow.

These researchers review past research on sex typing between the years 1974 and 1997, finding that sex typing has remained constant during this period despite increased social pressure to minimize gender differences. They conclude that the research supports a theory of constant gender differences and discounts theories of gender roles stemming from socialization.

Social change and the persistence of sex typing: 1974-1997. Social Forces (1): 1-36.

Effects of Poverty 1996
By: Harris, Kathleen Mullan, and Jeremy K. Marmer.

Using longitudinal data from the National Survey of Children, these researchers find that the effects of parent involvement on factors such as their childís delinquency, educational attainment, and economic attainment varies depending upon the gender of the parent. A motherís involvement tends to have a larger influence on mitigating negative long-term effects of poverty, but a fatherís involvement serves as a smaller but independent buffer against the negative long-term effects of poverty on children.

Poverty, paternal involvement, and adolescent well-being. Journal of Family Issues 17 (5): 614-40.

Opinions of Gender Roles 1992
By: Alwin, Duane F., Braun, Michael, and Jacqueline Scott.

Using data from the International Social Survey Program, these researchers report that 61% of US men and 50% of US women prefer that a woman not work when there is a child under school-age in the home, 28.7% of men and 38.5% of women say that a woman should work part-time under this circumstance, and 10.2% of men and 11.5% of women say that a woman should work full-time under this circumstance.

Separation of work and the family: Attitudes towards womenís labour-force participation in Germany, Great Britain, and the United States. European Sociological Review 8 (1): 13-37.

Housework 1991
By: Hersch, Joni.

This researcher studies data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and finds that, on average, working women spend more time on housework than working men from similar demographic groups. Married working men with no children spent about 7.5 hours per week on housework, married working women with no children 15 hours. Not-married working women with children spent about 14 hours per week on housework, not-married working men with children 10.5 hours.

The impact of nonmarket work on market wages. American Economic Review 81 (2): 157-60.

Labor Complementarity 1973
By: Becker, Gary S.

This researcher argues that the economic benefits from marriage result from the complementarity of labor and traits between married men and women.

A theory of marriage: Part I. Journal of Political Economy 81 (4): 813-46.

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