Income Variation 2007
By: Alesina, Alberto, and Paola Guiliano

In this article, the researchers use survey data from the World Value Survey and find that strong family ties imply less variation in family income as well as less reliance on government assistance because of the creation of social insurance through family relationships

The power of the family. NBER working paper no. 13051. Issued in April.

Income Level 2004
By: Aronson, Stacy R., and Aletha C. Huston

In this study of 1,364 children across the US, married mothers reported the highest income-to-needs ratio (4.26), which is ameasurement of financial resources per person in the home; a higher ratio suggests greater financial resources.  Cohabiting mothers reported the next highest ratio (2.3) followed by single mothers (1.17).

Mother-infant relationship in single, cohabiting, and married families: A case for marriage? Journal of Family Psychology 18 (1): 5-18

Wages 2004
By: Antonovics, Kate, and Robert Town.

These researchers use data from monozygotic twins and the Current Population Survey and find that marriage causes men’s wages to rise.  After controlling for educational attainment, first wage, and family size, they find that married men earn wages ranging from 19 to 26 percent higher than wages of unmarried men.

Are all the good men married? Uncovering the sources of the marital wage premium.  American Economic Review 94 (May): 317-21.

Affluence 2003
By: Hirschl, Thomas A., Altobelli, Joyce, and Mark R. Rank.

Using income data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study finds that married indviduals are more likely to have a period of affluence than unmarried individuals, regardless of age.  At age 45, 33% of married individuals had experienced a period of affluence compared to 16% of unmarried individuals.  By age 65, 42% of married individuals had experienced affluence relative to 18% of unmarried individuals.  The percentage of married individuals experiencing a repeated period of affluence within five years of first affluence was 10% at age 45 and 22% at age 65 compared to 6% at age 45 and 7% at age 65 for unmarried individuals.  These trends hold when comparing across race, gender, and presence of children.

Does marriage increase the odds of affluence? Exploring the life course probabilities. Journal of Marriage and Family 65 (4): 927-38.

Income Level 2003
By: Armor, David J.

Using data for the US from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth and the National Assessment of Education Progress, this researcher finds that black families with two parents earn an average income of $31,000 compared to $18,000 for black families headed by a never married mother. Overall, more than 50% of women who were married to their husbands and waited to have their first child after age 18 had household incomes of $35,000; whereas almost 60% of single mothers who had their first child before age 18 had household incomes of less than $20,000.

Maximizing Intelligence. Transaction Publishers: New Brunswick, NJ.

Income Level and Poverty 2003
By: American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on the Family.

This report finds evidence that economic outcomes of married-parent families tend to be better than those of other family structures. The median income of a family with married parents is 1.5 times greater than that of a female headed household, and the poverty rate of two-parent households is 3 to 5 times lower than single-parent households. Also, the proportion of children living in poverty in married-couple families is 5 times less than female-headed households.

Family pediatrics. Pediatrics 111 (6): 1541-53. 

Poverty 2003
By: Wood, David.

This article reviews child poverty literature and highlights that children who live in two-parent families experience poverty less due to the presence of extra wage-earning power, usually from the father. Statistically, only 10% of children from two-parent families are in poverty compared to 55% of children from single-parent families.

Effect of child and family poverty on child health in the United States. Pediatrics 112 (3): 707-12.

Poverty and Government Assistance 2003
By: Lichter, Daniel T., Roempke, Deborah, and Brian J. Brown.

Studying data from the National Survey of Family Growth, this study finds that only 8.4% of women who were married when their first child was born were poor compared to 30% of women whose first child was born out-of-wedlock.  Furthermore, women who were currently married were four times less likely to be receiving food stamps than never-married women and five times less likely to be receiving food stamps as all other women.

Is marriage a panacea? Union formation among economically disadvantaged unwed mothers. Social Problems 50 (1): 60-86. 

Home Production 2000
By: Parente, Stephen L., Rogerson, Richard, and Randall Wright.

These researchers argue that production in the home is a significant part of economic development and growth along with production in the market. Policies that affect economic welfare should take into account how home production will be affected and how home production will affect the outcome of the policies.

Homework in development economics: Household production and the wealth of nations. Journal of Political Economy 108 (4): 680-7.

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