Drug and Alcohol Abuse 2006
By: Afifi, Tracie O., Cox, Brian J., and Murray W. Enns.

Using data on mothers from the US National Comorbidity Survey, these researchers find that the proportion of married mothers struggling with alcohol abuse is 29% lower than for separated or divorced mothers; the proportion of married mothers struggling with drug abuse is 33% lower than for separated or divorced mothers.

Mental health profiles among married, never-married, and separated/divorced mothers in a nationally representative sample. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 41 (2): 122-9.

Hard Drugs 2006
By: Fagan, Patrick, Johnson, Kirk A., and Jonathan Butcher.

These researchers study data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health and find that adolescents from intact married families are 28% to 42% less likely to use hard drugs such as cocaine, LSD, and heroin than adolescents from stepfamilies, divorced single parent families, and families where the mother is cohabiting with a boyfriend who is not the father.

A portrait of family and religion in America: Key outcomes for the common good. Heritage Foundation:Washington, D.C.

Friends that Abuse Drugs 2004
By: Dorius, Cassandra J., Bahr, Stephen J., Hoffman, John P., and Elizabeth Lovelady Harmon.

These researchers analyze data from high school students and find that if a child has friends that use drugs, a close paternal relationship is a significant factor attenuating the likelihood that the child will also become involved with drugs.

Parenting practices as moderators of the relationship between peers and adolescent marijuana use.Journal of Marriage and Family 66 (1): 163-78.

Illicit Drug Use 2003
By: Dube, Shanta R., Felitti, Vincent J., Dong, Maxia, Chapman, Daniel P., Giles, Wayne H., and Robert F. Anda.

Using data from a clinic in California, these researchers find that an increase in the number of adverse childhood experiences, including parental separation or divorce, increases the likelihood of illicit drug use before age 14 by 2 to 4 times. Parental separation or divorce also increases the likelihood of using illicit drugs in adulthood.

Childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: The adverse childhood experiences study. Pediatrics 111 (3): 564-72.

Parental Involvement and Substance Abuse 2003
By: American academy of pediatrics task force on the family.

The researchers in this article find that children who have a married father and mother involved in their lives are less likely to be involved in substance abuse than are children who are missing some parental involvement.

Family pediatrics. Pediatrics 111 (6): 1541-53.

Alcoholism 2002
By: Dube, Shanta R., Anda, Robert F., Felitti, Vincent J., Edwards, Valerie J., and Janet B. Croft.

These researchers study data from a clinic in California and find that experiencing adverse childhood experiences such as parental separation or divorce increases the risk of heavy drinking, self-reported alcoholism, and marrying an alcoholic increased 2 to 4 times, regardless of parental alcoholism.

Adverse childhood experiences and personal alcohol abuse as an adult. Addictive Behaviors 27 (5): 713-25.

Substance Abuse 2002
By: Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce, and Hillary A. Rose.

Analyzing data from adolescents in a southeastern US city, these researchers find that adolescents in intact families were less likely to engage in substance abuse than adolescents from other family structures.

Risk and resiliency factors among adolescents who experience marital transitions. Journal of Marriage and Family 64 (4): 1024-37.

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