By: Osgood, Wayne D., and Jeff M. Chambers
This study tests data from 264 non-metropolitan counties in four US states and finds that a 13% increase in the proportion of female-headed households in US rural areas will double the overall violent crime offense rate among juveniles. Violent crimes include crimes such as rape, assault, and robbery. The researchers found this to be the strongest association in their model.
Social disorganization outside the metropolis: An analysis of rural youth violence. Criminology 38 (1): 81-115.